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HAV, HBV and HCV assays

All virology samples are processed as per manufacturers sample requirements and guidelines.

Hepatitis virus is named in order of their discovery A, B, C, D, E and G. 


Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is spread through food and water that have been contaminated with the virus derived from human faeces and urine. Hepatitis A is an acute infection, not a chronic form of the disease.



HBV Assays

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (AUAG)

A protein on the surface of HBV; it can be detected in high levels in serum during acute or chronic HBV infection. The presence of HBsAg indicates that the person is infectious. The body normally produces antibodies to HBsAg as part of the normal immune response to infection. HBsAg is the antigen used to make Hepatitis B vaccine. 

Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) (HBIM)

The presence of anti-HBs is generally interpreted as indicating recovery and immunity from HBV infection. Anti-HBs also develops in a person who has been successfully vaccinated against Hepatitis B. 

Total Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (HBC)

Appears at the onset of symptoms in acute Hepatitis B and persists for life. The presence of anti-HBc indicates previous or ongoing infection with HBV in an undefined time frame. 

IgM antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc) (HBCM)

Positivity indicates recent infection with HBV (≤6 months). Its presence indicates acute infection. 

Hepatitis B e antigen and antibody (HEPE)

Hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg): A secreted product of the nucleocapsid gene of HBV that is found in serum during acute and chronic Hepatitis B. Its presence indicates that the virus is replicating and the infected person has high levels of HBV. 

Hepatitis B e antibody (HBeAb or anti-HBe): Produced by the immune system temporarily during acute HBV infection or consistently during or after a burst in viral replication. Spontaneous conversion from e antigen to e antibody (a change known as seroconversion) is a predictor of long-term clearance of HBV in patients undergoing antiviral therapy and indicates lower
levels of HBV.

HBV Viral Load (DNAB)

This assay measures the concentration of Hepatitis B viral DNA in patient serum. The test enables the viral load at the beginning of treatment to be established and, thereafter, monitored to indicate treatment success. 

HBV Genotyping (BGEN)

Identifies the hepatitis B genotype (A to H) in a patient’s serum/plasma. This is critical for determining treatmentand monitoring response.

HBV Drug Resistance Detection (HBRM)

Detects hepatitis B virus wild-type and drug-induced mutations, associated with lamivudine, entecavir and tenofovir. 



HCV Assays

HCV Antibody (HEPC)

The test indicates exposure to virus but does not necessarily signify current infection. The HCV antibody test may therefore be used to screen patients for possible HCV infection to detect the presence of antibodies to the virus, indicating exposure to HCV. This test cannot tell if the viral infection is active, only that you were exposed to the virus in the past. 

HCV Antigen (HCAG)

HVC Antigen is detectable well before the occurrence of antibodies against HCV. When virus is present, but antibodies are not detectable, a negative antibody test does not rule out HCV infection. Active HCV infection, either acute or chronic is characterised by the presence of HCV Antigen. This is analogous to HepB sAg (AUAG) in active HBV Infection.

HCV Viral Load (QPCR)

Measures the concentration of hepatitis C viral RNA in patient serum. This state-of-the-art assay enables the viral load at the beginning of treatment to be established and, thereafter, monitored to indicate treatment success.

HCV Genotype for Treatment (CGEN)

Determines the HCV genotype in a patient’s serum. The result is presented as being of either Genotype [1, 5, 6], [4] or [2, 3]. This grouping reflects required treatment duration of the different genotypes. 

HCV Drug Resistance

Detects hepatitis C wild-type or drug-induced mutations associated with resistance to HCV drugs including NS5A inhibitors, NS5B inhibitors or NS3 inhibitors.